Display Inline Block And Display Inline Difference

Inline-block elements:. 0 in the same rule and that would create an inline-block element. display:block will extend to 100% of the available space, while display:table; will only be as wide as its contents. inline-block - effectively a block box inside an inline box. It really is (for the time being). That means that you can use an inline-block element as a block while flowing it within text or other elements. HTML elements have three display style options inline, block and none. Display and Positioning. CSS display properties: block, inline, and inline-block — & how to tell the difference. CSS - Inline block - The display inline block consists of a selector (such as. The offshoot is that in strict mode it’s not possible to make a container fit tightly around the image, unless, of course, you explicitly say img {display: block}. And when we add it before display:inline-block, FF2 ignores that declaration and keeps -moz-inline-stack because it doesn't support inline-block. Seriously, is that real, that the rendering of HTML-Elements depends on white-spaces, line-breaks or indentations used in the source code?. Put the above to use by applying any of the classes to an element of your choice. The margin-left and margin-right properties still work reliably for indentation purposes but the other margin settings do not. Affiche les éléments sous un mode tabulaire. Some interface designs may call for elements to be layered or stacked on top of each other. The problem is that there is in safari a space above the first div and I can't understand why. Unlike a block element an inline-block remains inline with all text around the element and appears the same as an inline. Used on 95. I am building a custom bootstrap 3 theme. The default display value for most elements is block or inline. and ask people to test vers HTML implementation in their email clients. Allow other elements to sit to their left and right 2. It doesn't put the gray space at the beginning and end, like it should. Vertical padding can be added but cannot increase the. 0 in the same rule and that would create an inline-block element. Block elements stretch across the entire width of a page or container and start on a new line (paragraphs, headlines) while inline elements (the default display) only take up the space they need. In this video, I want to go over the three most used display properties in CSS when building out your Web. Part I: HTML: 1. Block, inline, none, and inline-block. For display: inline, the width, height, margin-top, margin-bottom, and float properties have no effect because inline elements don't have a formal box with which to apply the styles. I've made a weird discovery about using the inline-block display. display:inline-block renders the way I want it to in chrome. d-none , it will apply to all breakpoints. The CSS display: inline-block is a combination of both inline and block-level features. A view view is simply a stored query. If you want to avoid nasty CSS hacks and don't care about IE6 (which you shouldn't), you can ensure proper inline-block handling in all browsers if you use a tag that has a default display of inline (other than the. In this video, you can learn. can any one explain me the difference between "display: inline" and "display:inline-block" in CSS. Example Copy. HIKASHOP BUSINESS 99,90€ The best version for a big shop online. Display inline-block - Display inline block placed like display inline but behaves like display block. Block element forces a line break and takes the full width of its parent element. I am going to demonstrate how the number of columns and rows can change by screen sizes in the next article. Block links are a little bit more multipurpose: buttons, nav menus, etc. Display inline-block – Display inline block placed like display inline but behaves like display block. The display Property. The whitespace and display properties are the driving force here. , without inline qualifier or storage class), the translation unit must contain a definition (no matter whether unqualified, inline, or extern inline) and an externally visible function will be emitted for it. With inline styles, you have to option…. NET code in an embedded code block to display the results of a loop:. We could use zoom:1. The offshoot is that in strict mode it’s not possible to make a container fit tightly around the image, unless, of course, you explicitly say img {display: block}. This is a normal testing paragraph, for reference. Les balises s'affichant en "inline" (dans la ligne): elles prennent uniquement la largeur dont elles ont besoin, sans ajouter de saut de ligne. Inline-block elements are similar to inline elements, except they can have padding and margins added on all four sides. The explanation on display: inline-block is missing a word on the inline-block-bug. You need to set the width of each column There will be a gap between the columns if there is any whitespace between them in the HTML. What exactly is the difference between the inline and inline-block values of CSS display? One thing not mentioned in answers is inline element can break among lines while inline-block can't (and obviously block)!. HTML preprocessors can make writing HTML more powerful or convenient. There are a few things to keep in mind: inline-block elements are affected by the vertical-align property, which you probably want set to top. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. Using CSS to reduce space between lines of wrapped text. Just like block-level elements, one can specify width and height for all inline-block elements. Use Web Inspector to find what's happening. inline-block - The element will generate a block box, laid out as an inline box, similar to the image behavior; list-item - Creates a block box for the content and the list item marker. txt" from the "Temp" directory on your Windows "E:" drive to the CLS so that the following URL will display the contents of that file. A fixed width and the divs are horizontally side by size. The display Property. If you want just a little more detail, jump to the section Steps for handling inline bidirectional text in HTML. In html what is the difference between span tag and div tag? Follow. markup is whitespace sensitive. Be sure to read all pages linked in this post; they have further information that should prove useful. 0 in the same rule and that would create an inline-block element. As an abbreviation tag is. The Inline Six 300 was first offered in the 1965. So that there will be no issue of page not rendering with extra blank pixels under images. What is the main difference between CSS and CSS3? In Css what is the difference between display:inline and display:inline-block? What is filter property in CSS and why it is use? What is CSS transition and how to use it? What is the difference between position relative vs absolute in Css?. First off, be aware that there have been a few more unrelated amendments to the HTML (and some more styles added in the Sass purely for presentational. Most HTML elements have the inline or block display types. In IE8, the divs display one under the other. I've made a weird discovery about using the inline-block display. There used to be two broad display types in CSS: elements were inline or block-level. Requires custom widths. inline-blockのIE6とIE7のサポートには、さらに手間をかける必要がある。inline-blockについて、hasLayoutと結びつけて話す人が時々いるだろう。だが、その話題は古いブラウザのサポートが必要な場合に限られるという事だけ知っておいてくれれば十分だ。. 4 min read. It Respects top & bottom margins and padding 3. The explanation on display: inline-block is missing a word on the inline-block-bug. The inline-block value is incredibly useful when wanting to control margin and padding on "inline" elements without the need to `block and float` them. Block links are a little bit more multipurpose: buttons, nav menus, etc. That is, elements that are set to display: inline or display: inline-block. display: inline-block will keep a box inline but lend the greater formatting flexibility of block boxes, allowing margin to the right and left of the box, for example. Agora qual a diferença entre eles? Display Block. jQuery make the elements display:block, while I'm sure there is a good reason for this I wonder is there anyway [jQuery] display inline vs block - jQuery Forum Loading. That is, elements that are set to display: inline or display: inline-block. An inline-block element behaves much the same as a float would with respect to its margins so there is no difference if you used a float - assuming that you need horizontal alignment which the. As a verb stamp is to step quickly and heavily, once or repeatedly. Diff Scatter Charts. display: inline-block will keep a box inline but lend the greater formatting flexibility of block boxes, allowing margin to the right and left of the box, for example. Éléments avec display:inline-block des éléments sont comme display:inline éléments, mais ils peuvent avoir une largeur et une hauteur. your results could have vanished. If an inline box follows, the run-in box becomes a block box. The element itself is formatted as an inline element, but it can apply height and width values. My mind is almost always geared toward efficiency in my work which draws me to the question which is most efficient; floating elements or making them inline and block level. The Django admin site¶. inline-block - The element will generate a block box, laid out as an inline box, similar to the image behavior; list-item - Creates a block box for the content and the list item marker. At least Mail. IE doesn't do what display: inline-block is supposed to do unless you either a: put it on someone who's naturally inline OR. Breakpoint utility classes always apply from the bottom up. i nline elements can be wrapped around text and used for styling but won't affect the position of the text as such. css center div vertically text block image (css align text) css id vs class attributes, when to use id and when to use class, difference between id and class; JavaScript scope chain tutorial – understanding js scope and scoping rules; JavaScript Introduction tutorial ( JavaScript 101 ) css property display block inline none initial ( HTML5 css3). For example, bullets, which are block elements, can be styled into horizontal menus by changing their display to so they will line up next to each other. 8- (using -moz-inline-box), the content's assigned width helps IE5/Mac. Professional Development Professional Development Section 1: My three behaviors: (6)"Understand that 'code is cheap. Similarities Between Block and Inline. Inline vs Inline-Block Display in CSS display: inline-block brought a new way to create side by side boxes that collapse and wrap properly depending on the available space in the containing element. display: block; /* uses one line for all the block element */ display: inline-block; /* Uses just the size necessary to hold the content and not all the line, still is a block tho. h1) add line breaks around themselves, while inline elements (like em) can be introduced into a page without causing too much disruption. SASS appears to have more options to create complex MIXINS (functions). The following values of the 'display' property make an element inline-level: 'inline', 'inline-table', and 'inline-block'. I'm want to know why not just use display:inline-block all of the time INSTEAD of float:left. The Markup. show() will not override !important. I've usually used either display: -moz-inline-block or -moz-inline-box and sometimes both. Works (more or less) in: IE5+/Win, IE5/Mac, Op7+, Saf, Gecko 1. addClass(),. are wrapped in {{inline block}} templates. There is a significant difference in the actual display of the element. When laying out and designing Web applications, it's important to know the distinctions between inline and block elements. Block and inline 2: More differences between block and inline boxes. You should by now know of the different types of HTML elements — block-level and inline — where block-level elements (e. A similar comparison can be made between display: inline-block and display: block, and pretty much any other display type that has an inline counterpart. They take up the width of their contents. A block-level element always starts on a new line and takes up the full width available. Headers in the text: Sometimes you might want a header to remain in the text, but maintain the HTML header values. Difference between visibility: hidden and display:node properties in css? What is the difference between display:flex vs display:inline-flex in CSS? What is the main difference between CSS and CSS3? What is the difference between position relative vs absolute in Css? What is the Difference between block Element and Inline Element?. That means that you can use an inline-block element as a block while flowing it within text or other elements. this only happens when exporting as doc-file, as pdf it looks fine. This article focuses on why you should start using display: inline-block , understanding this value as well as how to make sure it is consistent across. The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Block Elements. Using CSS to reduce space between lines of wrapped text. display: inline-block removes Mac IE5's need for explicit widths on floats With no contained block elements. The element itself is formatted as an inline element, but it can apply height and width values. The display property can change the type of the generated box, but CSS cannot change the grammatical or syntactical rules of HTML. Inherent in this structural distinction is the idea that block elements create "larger" structures than inline elements. The display CSS property sets whether an element is treated as a block or inline element and the layout used for its children, such as grid or flex. Works (more or less) in: IE5+/Win, IE5/Mac, Op7+, Saf, Gecko 1. This means you can actually center a block-property container without knowing its horizontal dimensions. Affiche les éléments sous un mode tabulaire. To demonstrate the diff scatter chart, let's consider a pair of experiments, each comparing two medicines. Knowing how to find information is just as if not more important than knowing the information. It really is (for the time being). A block container with no forced BFC, like block, but which inlinifies to an inline box. Inline-Block. Changing an element's "display" property from block level to inline. Unaliasing inline-block and inline flow-root, However, instead of treating inline-block as an exception, it may make more sense to separate the flow inner display type into two: Intuitively, the two extra values in the 3x3 grid would be. The element shares properties of both an inline and a flexbox element:. Are you trying to create an inline grid with your own CSS rules using the inline-block display mode? Probably you are frustrated and asking to yourself "Why the hell is there a space between my elements!?". Block elements are those that take up the full width available on a web page, effectively blocking out any other elements from sitting next to it on the left or right. Not supported by Mozilla at time of writing. left/right对display(inline,block,inline-block)的影响. Inline block is a very useful CSS display property value with good browser support that can be used to layout elements such as navbars, grids or even entire webpages. Positioning: relative: Offsetting from the box’s initial position. This applies to text, inline, and inline-block elements. Use three sliders to control RGB values and update Hex and HSL strings. The default display value for most elements is block or inline. It Respects top & bottom margins and padding 3. Example Copy. If you mean margins around body with `a space above the first div`, you should know every browser have default styles for each html elements. I should be able to, for example, move the City to its own line without touching the HTML file. Similarities Between Block and Inline. Block-level vs. Diff Scatter Charts. You can't make a two column grid with the left being 30% and the right being 70%, with display: inline-block, because the whitespace will break the grid and push the second column to the next line. Mas acredite, uma vez que você. You might think this would result in two perfectly equal boxes, inline with each other, but it doesn't turn out the way you would expect. 0 in the same rule and that would create an inline-block element. * have some box-model properties: [code]borders[/code], [code]margin[/code], [code]padding. Whereas an element with display:inline-block does not ignore height and width and developer can set width and height. There is an important difference between inline elements (em, strong, a, span; anything with display:inline) and block elements (hX, p, li, div; anything with display:block) in their padding and border formatting. Inline-block elements: 1. Éléments avec display:inline-block des éléments sont comme display:inline éléments, mais ils peuvent avoir une largeur et une hauteur. You might have to mess around with the timing in some cases, possibly going down to as little as a single millisecond. CSS display:inline-block 的效果可以讓許多區塊自動浮動起來水平排列,而且不需要額外設定 clear 也不會讓接著的元素浮上來蓋住區塊,這樣說起來有點抽像. Also, with display: inline-block, the top and bottom margins/paddings are respected, but with display: inline they are not. This topic describes the behavior of inline functions and provides function descriptions, including examples and arguments. Metro 4 is an open source toolkit for developing with HTML, CSS, and JS. A div is an empty container into which you can put items. Use display: block; or display: inline; to set the type of block the element generates. I also want the box to be animated. What are Block Elements 3. If you float an element it disregards the display property, and becomes like display inline but can take dimensions. Diff charts are available for bar charts, column charts, pie charts, and scatter charts. As if it never existed. They simply can't be executed before the first update of the skin. The CSS display: inline-block is a combination of both inline and block-level features. bizim de haklı sebeplerimiz var. Positioning: static: Following the normal flow. About HTML Preprocessors. My mind is almost always geared toward efficiency in my work which draws me to the question which is most efficient; floating elements or making them inline and block level. Inline math. That means that you can use an inline-block element as a block while flowing it within text or other elements. 1, display Radio button inline doesn't work anymore. Pour lui c'est display: inline; et lui donner le hasLayout (et pour ce dernier point, c'est zoom: 1; à moins qu'il y ait déjà un width, height, etc auquel cas c'est inutile). Unaliasing inline-block and inline flow-root, However, instead of treating inline-block as an exception, it may make more sense to separate the flow inner display type into two: Intuitively, the two extra values in the 3x3 grid would be. The best way to explain inline Lua is to disassemble a few simple examples: SimpleLua. I am building a custom bootstrap 3 theme. Use Web Inspector to find what's happening. Inline-block is the bees knees. css center div vertically text block image (css align text) css id vs class attributes, when to use id and when to use class, difference between id and class; JavaScript scope chain tutorial – understanding js scope and scoping rules; JavaScript Introduction tutorial ( JavaScript 101 ) css property display block inline none initial ( HTML5 css3). It means that elements are rendered in one line and follow other inline elements, without going in a new line (unless all space is filled). Margin and padding will only push other elements horizontally away, not vertically. Display inline-block – Display inline block placed like display inline but behaves like display block. How To Create A Responsive Navigation Menu Using Only CSS. The AMS (American Mathematical Society) mathematics package is a powerful package that creates a higher layer of abstraction over mathematical LaTeX language; if you use it it will make your life easier. HTML elements have three display style options inline, block and none. None none , well, doesn't display a box at all, which may sound pretty useless but can be used to good effect with dynamic effects, such as switching extended information on. It's worked. The direction property in CSS sets the direction of of content flow within a block-level element. 6 shows the block diagram vi for the proposed technique. They take up the width of their contents. And when we add it before display:inline-block, FF2 ignores that declaration and keeps -moz-inline-stack because it doesn't support inline-block. The line-height property defines the amount of space above and below inline elements. Inline Lua used in bangs in actions in the skin will only be executed when the action is executed, and so will not display this behavior. h1) add line breaks around themselves, while inline elements (like em) can be introduced into a page without causing too much disruption. Difference of supported styles as summary: inline: only margin-left, margin-right, padding-left, padding-right; inline-block. CSS Display Block. Climate Momentum Shifting, Prominent Scientists Reverse Belief in Man-made Global Warming, Skeptics, AL Gore, climactic Armageddon, Jan Veizer, Ian Clark, Tom Patterson. Block Level Elements cover complete horizontal space and always start with the new line. SASS appears to have more options to create complex MIXINS (functions). inline-block. The explanation on display: inline-block is missing a word on the inline-block-bug. Definition and Usage. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. PORTC and LATC are in different banks but have the same bank offset. Alright, after having worked for quite a bit with flexbox, I guess this is the perfect question. For more information about Tailwind's responsive design features, check out the Responsive Design documentation. This video explains the difference between CSS display property values like inline, inline-block, block, and none. That means that you can use an inline-block element as a block while flowing it within text or other elements. 부득이한 경우에는 Inline 속성의 태그를 CSS에서 span { display: block }과 같이 정의하여 임의로 block 속성으로 변경할 수 있지만, CSS는 표준 문법 규칙을 지키면서 여러분이 원하는 모든 효과를 낼 수 있습니다. Positioning: static: Following the normal flow. Jain Sons Electricals - offering Inline Block I/O modules, टर्मिनल ब्लॉक,Electrical & Electronic Connectors in Delhi, Delhi. In IE8, the divs display one under the other. block: A block box — behaves like the default styling of block HTMl elements such as p or div. Hence it didn't show, but it affected its neighbors anyway. Use display:inline-block; on your a tag and display:block; on your img. Here's the same example, but with display: inline. This will allow all the elements under it (if they are also floated left) to align to its right and thus fo. As such, the CSS display property is used to change the behavior of inline and block elements. While block's position includes its border and padding, the position of an inline element includes only horizontal paddings and borders. A div is an empty container into which you can put items. For example, changing an inline-level element to be displayed as block-level element or changing the block-level element to be displayed as an inline-level element. Allow other elements to sit to their left and right 2. The line-height property can accept the keyword values normal or none as well as a number, length, or percentage. Works (more or less) in: IE5+/Win, IE5/Mac, Op7+, Saf, Gecko 1. Allows all side of padding and margin 2. There's something wrong with the final syntax checker I guess. An inline-block element is white-space dependent, so if you display list items using inline-block (in a navigation bar, for example), the list items will have unwanted space next to each other. The margin-left and margin-right properties still work reliably for indentation purposes but the other margin settings do not. Following link is an example of the same kinda html page with an internal style sheet. When comparing inline-block to floats, it wasn't immediately clear what the exact differences were and what method to prefer. It makes layouts that were previously accomplished with floats easier to create. Check out the differences here at my CodePen page. Overview and Key Difference 2. I think we should go ahead and take this patch, except for that baseline business, then file a followup for inline-table. It does not allow other elements to come to their left and right. and to be safe because I only did a quick test, use the table cell property before the inline-block property because although Opera supports table-cell too it also requires (or assumes, can't remember which ) the complete table construct, i. Remarks This attribute can be used to name the specific formatting marked with a element that records non-standard styling information. First off, be aware that there have been a few more unrelated amendments to the HTML (and some more styles added in the Sass purely for presentational. – usually the page if its not be nested within another block. For more information about Tailwind's responsive design features, check out the Responsive Design documentation. NET / Web Forms / changing the display property from inline to block in C# changing the display property from inline to block in C# RSS 6 replies. Series B: inline-table divs having assigned width, together with text. A block container with no forced BFC, like block, but which inlinifies to an inline box. Check out the differences here at my CodePen page. We love well-designed forms here at ZURB, and recently we've been exploring some cool new tricks for how we can display form inputs and labels in a concise, usable and totally awesome way. What you are looking for is display: inline-block. The LaTeX delimiters for inline math are \(and \). I used backup buddy for the transfer. inline-block. El valor por defecto para la mayoría de los elementos es usualmente block (de bloque) o inline (en línea). Block Level Elements cover complete horizontal space and always start with the new line. Margins and Padding on Inline Elements 1. Also, with display: inline-block, the top and bottom margins/paddings are respected, but with display: inline they are not. Note: The CSS display property is one of the most powerful and useful properties in all the CSS. Horizontal list menus: Lists are block-level elements, but if you want your menu to display horizontally, you need to convert the list to an inline element so that each menu item doesn't start on a new line. Block links are a little bit more multipurpose: buttons, nav menus, etc. Internally, it's a block element, but from the outside it acts like an inline element. The offshoot is that in strict mode it’s not possible to make a container fit tightly around the image, unless, of course, you explicitly say img {display: block}. Add fuse protection with an inline fuse holder. The start edge (and end edge) of the block is displaced by the least amount necessary to insure that (a) the start edge (end edge) of the block does not intersect any of the start intrusions (end intrusions) that overlap that block and (b) the amount by which it is displaced is at least as much as the displacement of the parent area,. You'll have to declare display: inline-block in your CSS code. A value of block will make that element a block-level element. OK, I Understand. What does Using The HTML Tag To Create Inline Frames: Display block. Inline vs Inline-Block Display in CSS display: inline-block brought a new way to create side by side boxes that collapse and wrap properly depending on the available space in the containing element. Například odkaz (tag ) je prvek řádkový. inline-block tanıyor ama bug'lı. The display property can be used to change the default behavior of inline and block-level elements, using a value of block, inline, or inline-block. Requires custom widths. Let's look at an example. Display:inline is like a box without dimensions, it just sits next to the element beside it. inline: An inline box — behaves like the default styling of inline HTMl elements such as em or span. Display Block or {display:block;} can change the Inline Elements into the Block Level Elements. A Logos user recently e-mailed me asking: When I read a Logos resource I. In this section you'll see examples and code samples for each diff chart type. how display math shows them (with \[ or $$). Difference Between Inline and Block Elements CSS so we just need to display these like inline-block. Please tell the advantage of converting inline elements into block and vice versa, using the property display:block & display inline. For display: inline, the width, height, margin-top, margin-bottom, and float properties have no effect because inline elements don't have a formal box with which to apply the styles. hello I'm wondering if somebody has the same problem as me: my report has two levels of grids, display property is set to Inline (NOT block) and still i have a line-break before and after every grid. display: inline-block. left/right对display(inline,block,inline-block)的影响. There is a significant difference in the actual display of the element. NET MVC NumericTextBox. Display as inline-block means HTML tag is solid and not breakable like click button so that full text appears on one line. JavaScript syntax: object. Display Block or {display:block;} can change the Inline Elements into the Block Level Elements. Learn about both elements, and find out how you can use CSS to override. Display block - Display block means that the element is displayed as a block, Divs, header, footer, sections, paragraphs are block level elements. Difference with display: inline. Series B: inline-table divs having assigned width, together with text. display 是CSS中最重要的用于控制布局的属性。 每个元素都有一个默认的 display 值,这与元素的类型有关。对于大多数元素它们的默认值通常是 block 或 inline 。. Changing the Default Display Value. In this article we'll see how the box model is applied to inline boxes, and how a new feature in the Firefox Developer Tools can help you visualize the box model for inline. I used backup buddy for the transfer. "display: inline-block" Property: This property is used to display an element as an inline-level block container. If you'd like to understand inline bidirectional text better, and see worked examples, read the rest of this article. Sibling inline elements are one after the other What is a block element Element from IT IT230 at Saudi Electronic University. Your current Windows directory is C:\Windows and you connect using userid abcd0001 to the CLS. wikieducator. Can anyone explain in detail the difference between inline and inline-block ? I searched everywhere, the most detailed explanation tells me inline-block is placed as inline , but behaves like block. */ You can see the difference by opening the workspace and create a index. inline - An inline box. td:before or td:after {display:block} shows as inline box instead of block box In the test case the text '[before]' and '[after]' should show on their own line. The CSS display: inline-block is a combination of both inline and block-level features. I also want the box to be animated. A block element takes up the full width available, and has a line break before and after it. It is placed as an inline element (on the same line as adjacent content). Unlike a block element an inline-block remains inline with all text around the element and appears the same as an inline. hello; still here; goodbye; With a { display: block; } Add in a block-level element and things go awry with the floats becoming as wide as they can. display: inline-block. Positioning: relative: Offsetting from the box’s initial position. I use inline-block elements on my homepage in the Recent Work section. I've looked up several tutorials, but. When rendered visually, inline elements do not usually begin on a new line. There are two kinds of boxes: block and inline. 4 min read. El valor por defecto para la mayoría de los elementos es usualmente block (de bloque) o inline (en línea). Created by Thiemo Mättig, 2007-08-02. with an image and one or two colours. The element shares properties of both an inline and a flexbox element:. While block's position includes its border and padding, the position of an inline element includes only horizontal paddings and borders. Inline labels are nothing new – in fact the easiest way to label a field is to simply set the field value up front and blow it away when the field gains focus. If inline declarations are mixed with extern inline declarations or with unqualified declarations (ie. As if it never existed. I am still pretty new on MVC, views, controllers, what I want to do is to render a view to display content like the image below here -- note: this is purely for exercise for learning about wha.